Powder Mixing

Section summary
1. Principles of mixing
2. Common mixers
3. Batch mixing vs Continuous mixing

Principles of mixing

Froude Number

Powder mixing is based on the movement of the particles part of the recipe to be mixed. The movement can be of different type and different designs of mixers will correspond to different mixing principles.

Mixers are often classified thanks to the Froude Number. This adimensional number will define the regime of mixing depending on its value.

Froude number is defined as : u/(g.D)^0.5

With
u = tip speed mixing element
D = diameter of mixing element

Froude number is comparing 2 forces : Fr = (forces other than gravity - mainly centrifugal) / gravity

If Fr < 1 it means that the gravity forces will be stronger than the centrifugal forces, the powder will remain settled in the mixer, moved, but not in a cloud
If Fr > 1 it means that the centrifugal forces will tend to be stronger than the gravity force : the powder will have a tendency to be suspended in air in the mixer.

Among the common mixers used industrially for powder mixing, the table below is proposing a classification according to Froude Number

Table 1 : Mixer classified according to their Froude number and mixing principle

Fr Mixing class Mixer type Pros Cons
< 1 Diffusion V Blenders
Double Cone blenders
Bin blenders
Drums blenders
Very simple
Low energy required
Gentle mix
No mixing elements in the equipment
Reliability
Access for cleaning
Long mixing
Cannot achieve good mixing for powders of very different particle sizes
Segregation effects can be experienced
< 1 Convection Ribbon Blenders
Screw Blenders
Achieve generally better mixing results than diffusion blenders
Low energy inputs
Generally less expensive than paddle or plough share mixers
Long mixing
Mechanical complexity
Access for cleaning
Can damage product at long mixing time
> 1 Convection Paddle Mixers
Pneumatic mixers
Short mixing time
Gentle mixing
Low energy input
Good access for cleaning (some design can be with extractible shafts
For paddle mixers, exist in continuous mixing execution
For padlle mixers, a liquid injection can be foreseen
Cost compared to diffusion tumblers / ribbon blenders
If liquid injection, prone to agglomeration - then needs some additional mixing elements at higher shear
>> 1 Convection
Shearing
Plough Share Mixers
High shear mixing elements
Short mixing time
Reduce risks of powder agglomeration
Exist in continuous mixing execution
Higher powder breakage
High energy input
Cost

Another type of classification could be proposed depending on the type of process where mixers are integrated : Batch or Continuous. If batch mixer probably represent the majority of the industrial applications, some types of mixers (paddle mixers) can be used in a continuous mode, which can be useful for some kind of processes.

Mixing time

The following elements will influence the mixing time. As a general rule, mixers operators look for a mixing time as short as possible in order to increase the productivity of their line.

Table 2 : parameters influencing the mixing time

Operating parameter Influence on mixing time
Mixing volume A higher mixing volume will lead to higher mixing time
However for mixer at Fr>1, after a certain volume, mixing time will be almost constant
Note : a mixer should not be over-filled otherwise the mixing may even become impossible
Mixing speed A higher mixing speed usually gives a shorter mixing time
Influence on the powder should however be considered (powder breakage
Froude number Higher Fr number should give shorter mixing time
Powder breakage will be a concern when Fr >>1
Solids type The more the particle sizes of the mix consituents are different, the more difficult it will be to mix

Common mixers

The following common mixers will be presented below

Ribbon Blender
Paddle mixer
Tumbler mixer

Ribbon Blender

Mixing principle

Ribbon blender

(drawing from US Machinery under license Creative Commons)

Figure 1 : Ribbon blender

Key characteristics

Table 3 : ribbon blender process characteristics

Mixing tool Ribbon
Froude regime less than 1
Typical mixing speeds 50-70 rpm, higher speed can be possible
Size From few 100 l to more than 10000 l
Typical mixing time More than 5 minutes
Impact on product Can be severe if long mixing time at high speed
Number of bearings 2 - mixing tool not cantilevered
Top cover Bolted, with gasket
Outlet 1 - generally round, some design hygienic
Cleanability Limited, not a good access
Access Generally doors on the top
Note : some designs of Ribbon blenders are actually done with an extractible shaft. This promotes cleanability but complexifies the design. The ribbon is anyway difficult to clean.

Paddle mixers

Mixing principle

Paddle Mixer

Key characteristics

Table 4 : paddle mixer process characteristics

Mixing tool Paddles
Froude regime More than 1
Typical mixing speeds 50 rpm for around 1000 l mixer
Size From few 100 l to 5000 l
Typical mixing time 1 to 2 minutes
Impact on product Mixing is quite gentle, low degradation of powder expected
Number of bearings 1 or 2 - mixing tool can be cantilevered
Top cover Bolted, with gasket or welded
Outlet 1 or 2 - round hygienic design possible, bomb doors possible
Cleanability Good, some design allow to take out the shafts
Access Doors on side, some design with door on front (when cantilered)

Tumbler mixer

Mixing principle

Drum - bin blender

Key characteristics

Table 5 : tumbler mixer process characteristics

Mixing tool Container - V shape, double cone, drum - generally no mixing tool
Froude regime Less than 1
Typical mixing speeds 25 rpm
Size From few l to 2000 l (when containers are mixed)
Typical mixing time 5 to 15 minutes
Impact on product Mixing is quite gentle (if no agitator added), low degradation of powder expected
Number of bearings The drum is agitated by a rotating arm
Top cover Clamped
Cleanability Good when the container is small, poor if bigger, for large container dedication of the container to one product is recommended
Access Mixer must be protected by a safety cage

Type of container blender

Containers can be of very variable size. The smaller blenders will run with drums from few l to 200 liters. Those drums are often made of Stainless Steel, and can be equipped with baffles on the top cover. Those baffles promote the mixing and can result in a reduction in mixing time.

Bigger containers will generally have a conical bottom. Those containers can be 500 to 2000 l big. Some designs can actually be equipped with an agitator. The mixing will then combine the effect of the agitator with the classical avalanche effect of the container rotation

Batch vs Continuous

Designing a solids mixing process batch or continuous is a question that will be asked at the very beginning of the project since the processes will require very different process equipments.

The following grid is summarizing what imply each process type regarding key design parameters

Table 5 : comparison of batch and continuous mixing process

Process variable Continuous Batch
Mixer size (at similar output Smaller Larger
Segregation risks Smaller Higher due to steps following the mixing operation (sudden drop of the material
Space requirements (at similar output) Smaller Larger
Flexibility Lower (continuous mixer designed for few recipe changes Higher (mixing installation can start/stop on demand
Recipe complexity Lower (limited number of ingredients Higher (the process can accomodate more ingredients
Automation Complex for the control of the Loss In Weight Feeders Generally simple
Staff competency required High because of the dosing systems Lower



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